Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men in the present and how is this difference growing in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence is not sufficient to support a definitive conclusion. We recognize that biological, behavioral and ماذا يحدث بين الزوجين في الحمام بالصور environmental factors play a role in the fact that women have longer life spans than men, however, we do not know how significant the impact of each of these factors is.
Independently of the exact weight, we know that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men and not previously, has to have to do with the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are above the diagonal parity line ; this means in all countries a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a new boy.1
This chart illustrates that, even though women enjoy an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences can be substantial. In Russia, women live 10 years longer than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half a year.
The advantage of women in life expectancy was much lower in the richer countries than it is today.
Let’s take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The chart below illustrates the male and female life expectancy at the time of birth in the US during the period 1790 until 2014. Two distinct points stand out.
The first is that there is an upward trend. Men as well as women in the US have a much longer life span longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
The gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was once quite small It has significantly increased with time.
You can verify that these points are also applicable to other countries that have data by selecting the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.