Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how has this advantage gotten larger over time? There isn’t much evidence and we’re left with only incomplete answers. We know that biological, behavioral and environmental factors play a role in the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know how significant the impact to each of these variables is.

Independently of the exact amount of weight, we are aware that at least part of the reason why women live longer than men today, but not in the past, is to have to do with the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. These factors are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men

The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her brother.

This graph shows that although women have an advantage in all countries, افضل كريم للشعر the differences across countries could be significant. In Russia women have a longer life span than men. In Bhutan the gap is just half each year.

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In rich countries the advantage of women in longevity was smaller

Let’s see how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows the male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US from 1790 until 2014. Two points stand out.

The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in the United States live longer than they used to a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The gap is growing: Although the advantage of women in life expectancy was once quite small but it has risen significantly over time.

You can check if these principles are also applicable to other countries that have data by clicking on the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.